Description and Operation
Many of the procedures associated with vehicle maintenance and repair involve physical hazards or other risks to health. This subsection lists, alphabetically, some of these hazardous operations and the materials and equipment associated with them. Precautions necessary to avoid these hazards are identified.
The list is not exhaustive and all operations and procedures, and the handling of materials, should be carried out with health and safety in mind.
Before using any product the Materials Safety Data Sheet supplied by the manufacturer or supplier should be consulted.
Acids and Alkalis
See also Battery Acids.
For example caustic soda, sulphuric acid.
Used in batteries and cleaning materials.
Irritant and corrosive to the skin, eyes, nose and throat. Cause burns. Can destroy ordinary protective clothing.
Avoid splashes to the skin, eyes and clothing. Wear suitable protective impervious apron, gloves and goggles. Do not breath mists.
Make sure access to eye wash bottles, shower and soap are readily available for splashing accidents.
Display Eye Hazard sign.
See also Fire, Chemical Materials.
Highly flammable, explosive – observe No Smoking policy.
Used as a safety restraint system mounted in the steering wheel and passenger side of the instrument panel.
The inflator contains a high-energetic propellant which, when ignited, produces a VERY HOT GAS (2500°C).
The gas generant used in air bags is Sodium Azide. This material is hermetically sealed in the module and is completely consumed during deployment. No attempt should be made to open an air bag inflator as this will lead to the risk of exposure to Sodium Azide. If a gas generator is ruptured, full protective clothing should be worn when dealing with the spillage.
After normal deployment, gloves and safety goggles must be worn during the handling process.
Deployed air bags should be disposed of in a plastic bag in accordance with local regulations at an approved chemical waste site.
Following any direct contact with gas generant.
- wash affected areas thoroughly with water.
- seek medical assistance if necessary.
Air Bags - Do's
- Do store modules in an upright position.
- Do keep modules dry.
- Do carry modules with the cover side pointing away from the body.
- Do place modules with their cover side upwards.
- Do carefully inspect modules for damage.
- Do stand to one side when connecting modules.
- Do make sure all test equipment is properly calibrated and maintained.
- Do wash hands after handling deployed air bags.
Air Bags - Do Nots
- Do not store highly flammable material together with modules or gas generators.
- Do not store gas generators at temperatures exceeding 80°C.
- Do not store modules upside down.
- Do not attempt to open a gas generator housing.
- Do not expose gas generators to open flame or sources of heat.
- Do not place anything on top of a module cover.
- Do not use damaged modules.
- Do not touch a fired module or gas generator for at least 10 minutes.
- Do not use any electrical probes on the wiring circuit.
Air Conditioning Refrigerant
See also Chlorofluorocarbon, Chemical Materials
Highly flammable, combustible – observe No Smoking policy.
Skin contact may result in frostbite.
Instructions given by the manufacturer must be followed. Avoid naked lights, wear suitable protective gloves and goggles.
If refrigerant comes into contact with the skin or eyes, immediately rinse the affected areas with water. Eyes should also be rinsed with an appropriate irrigation solution and should not be rubbed. SEEK MEDICAL ASSISTANCE IF NECESSARY.
Air Conditioning Refrigerant - Do Nots
- Do not expose refrigerant bottles to sunlight or heat.
- Do not stand refrigerant bottles upright; when filling, hold them with the valve downwards.
- Do not expose refrigerant bottles to frost.
- Do not drop refrigerant bottles.
- Do not vent refrigerant to atmosphere under any circumstance.
- Do not mix refrigerants, for example R12 (Freon) and R134a.
Adhesives and Sealers
See also Fire, Chemical Materials.
Highly flammable, flammable, combustible – observe No Smoking policy.
Generally should be stored in No Smoking areas. Cleanliness and tidiness in use should be observed, for example disposable paper covering benches; should be dispensed from applicators where possible; containers, including secondary containers, should be labeled appropriately.
Solvent-based Adhesives/Sealers - See Solvents
Follow manufacturers instructions.
Those based on polymer emulsions and rubber latexes may contain small amounts of volatile toxic and harmful chemicals. Skin and eye contact should be avoided and adequate ventilation provided during use.
Hot Melt Adhesives
In the solid state, they are safe. In the molten state they may cause burns and health hazards may arise from the inhalation of toxic fumes.
Use appropriate protective clothing and a thermostatically controlled heater with a thermal cut-out and adequate extraction.
Resin-based Adhesives/Sealers, for example Epoxide and Formaldehyde Resin-based
Mixing should be carried out in well ventilated areas, as harmful or toxic volatile chemicals may be released.
Skin contact with uncured resins and hardeners can result in irritation, dermatitis, and absorption of toxic or harmful chemicals through the skin. Splashes can damage the eyes.
Provide adequate ventilation and avoid skin and eye contact.
Anaerobic, Cyanoacrylate (super-glues) and other Acrylic Adhesives
Many are irritant, sensitizing or harmful to the skin and respiratory tract. Some are eye irritants.
Skin and eye contact should be avoided and the manufacturers instructions followed.
Cyanoacrylate adhesives (super-glues) MUST NOT contact the skin or eyes. If skin or eye tissue is bonded, cover with a clean moist pad and SEEK IMMEDIATE MEDICAL ATTENTION. Do not attempt to pull tissue apart. Use in well ventilated areas as vapors can cause irritation to the nose and eyes.
For two-pack systems see Resin-based and Isocyanate Adhesives/Sealers.
Isocyanate (Polyurethane) Adhesives/Sealers
See also Resin-based Adhesives.
Individuals suffering from asthma or respiratory allergies should not work with or near these materials as sensitivity reactions can occur.
Over exposure is irritating to the eyes and respiratory system. Excessive concentrations may produce effects on the nervous system including drowsiness. In extreme cases, loss of consciousness may result. Long term exposure to vapor concentrations may result in adverse health effects.
Prolonged contact with the skin may have a defatting effect which may lead to skin irritation and in some cases, dermatitis.
Splashes entering the eye will cause discomfort and possible damage.
Any spraying should preferably be carried out in exhaust ventilated booths, removing vapors and spray droplets from the breathing zone.
Wear appropriate gloves, eye and respiratory protection.
See also Fire, Solvents.
For example isopropanol, ethylene glycol, methanol.
Highly flammable, flammable, combustible.
Used in vehicle coolant systems, brake air pressure systems, screenwash solutions.
Vapors may be given off from coolant antifreeze (glycol) when heated. Avoid breathing these vapors.
Antifreeze may be absorbed through the skin in toxic or harmful quantities. Antifreeze, if swallowed, can be fatal and MEDICAL ATTENTION SHOULD BE SOUGHT IMMEDIATELY.
These products must not be used in any cooling or industrial water system that is connected or linked to general, food preparation or drinking water supplies.
See also Warning Symbols on Vehicles at the end of this subsection.
Breathing asbestos dust may cause lung damage or, in some cases, cancer.
Used in brake and clutch linings, transmission brake bands and gaskets.
The use of drum cleaning units, vacuum cleaning or damp wiping is preferred.
Asbestos dust waste should be dampened, placed in a sealed container and marked for safe disposal. If any cutting or drilling is attempted on materials containing asbestos the item should be dampened and only hand tools or low speed power tools used.
See also Acids and Alkalis.
Gases released during charging are explosive. Never use naked flames or allow sparks near charging or recently charged batteries.
Make sure there is adequate ventilation.
Brake and Clutch Linings and Pads
Brake Fluids (Polyalkylene Glycols)
See also Fire.
Splashes to the skin and eyes are slightly irritating. Avoid skin and eye contact as far as possible. Inhalation vapor hazards do not arise at ambient temperatures because of the very low vapor pressure.
See also Legal Aspects.
Chemical materials such as solvents, sealers, adhesives, paints, resin foams, battery acids, antifreeze, brake fluids, fuels, oils and grease should always be used with caution and stored and handled with care. They may be toxic, harmful, corrosive, irritant or highly flammable and give rise to hazardous fumes and dusts.
The effects of excessive exposure to chemicals may be immediate or delayed; briefly experienced or permanent; cumulative; superficial; life threatening; or may reduce life expectancy.
Chemical Materials - Do's
- Do carefully read and observe hazard and precaution warnings given on material containers (labels) and in any accompanying leaflets, posters or other instructions. Material health and safety data sheets can be obtained from manufacturers.
- Do remove chemical materials from the skin and clothing as soon as practicable after soiling. Change heavily soiled clothing and have it cleaned.
- Do organize work practices and protective clothing to avoid soiling of the skin and eyes; breathing vapors, aerosols, dusts or fumes; inadequate container labeling; fire and explosion hazards.
- Do wash before job breaks, before eating, smoking, drinking or using toilet facilities when handling chemical materials.
- Do keep work areas clean, uncluttered and free of spills.
- Do store chemical materials according to national and local regulations.
- Do keep chemical materials out of the reach of children.
Chemical Materials - Do Nots
- Do not mix chemical materials except under the manufacturers instructions; some chemicals can form other toxic or harmful chemicals, give off toxic or harmful fumes or become explosive when mixed together.
- Do not spray chemical materials, particularly those based on solvents, in confined spaces, for example when people are inside a vehicle.
- Do not apply heat or flame to chemical materials except under the manufacturers instructions. Some are highly flammable and some may release toxic or harmful fumes.
- Do not leave containers open. Fumes given off can build up to toxic, harmful or explosive concentrations. Some fumes are heavier than air and will accumulate in confined areas such as pits.
- Do not transfer chemical materials to unlabelled containers.
- Do not clean hands or clothing with chemicals. Chemicals, particularly solvents and fuels, will dry the skin and may cause irritation leading to dermatitis or be absorbed through the skin in toxic or harmful quantities.
- Do not use emptied containers for other materials except when they have been cleaned under supervised conditions.
- Do not sniff or smell chemical materials. Brief exposure to high concentrations of fumes can be toxic or harmful.
There is concern in the scientific community that CFCs and Halons are depleting the upper ozone layer which filters out harmful ultraviolet radiation. Decreased filtration of ultraviolet radiation may result in increases in skin cancer, cataracts and immune system suppression in humans, as well as decreased productivity of crops and aquatic systems.
CFCs are used primarily as refrigerants in vehicle air conditioning systems and as aerosol propellants. Halons are used as fire extinguishants.
See Brake fluids.
Clutch Linings and Pads
Corrosion Protection Materials
See also Solvents, Fire.
Highly flammable, flammable – observe No Smoking policy.
These materials are varied and the manufacturers instructions must be followed. They may contain solvents, resins or petroleum products. Skin and eye contact should be avoided. They should only be sprayed in conditions of adequate ventilation and not in confined spaces.
See Solvents and Fuels (Kerosene).
Powder, dusts or clouds may be irritant, harmful or toxic. Avoid breathing dusts from powdery chemical materials or those arising from dry abrasion operations. Wear respiratory protection if ventilation is inadequate.
Fine dusts of combustible material can present an explosion hazard. Avoid explosive limits and sources of ignition.
Electric shock can result from the use of faulty electrical equipment or from the misuse of equipment in good condition.
Make sure that electrical equipment is maintained in good condition and frequently tested. Faulty equipment should be labeled and preferably removed from the workstation.
Make sure that flexes, cables, plugs and sockets are not frayed, kinked, cut, cracked or otherwise damaged.
Make sure that electrical equipment and flexes do not come into contact with water.
Make sure that electrical equipment is protected by the correct rated fuse.
Never misuse electrical equipment and never use equipment that is in any way faulty. The results could be fatal.
Make sure that the cables of mobile electrical equipment cannot get trapped and damaged, such as in a vehicle hoist.
Make sure that the designated electrical workers are trained in basic First Aid.
In cases of electrocution:
- switch off the power supply before approaching the victim.
- if this is not possible push or drag the victim from the source of electricity using dry non-conductive material.
- commence resuscitation if trained to do so.
- SUMMON MEDICAL ASSISTANCE.
See Lubricants and Grease.
These contain asphyxiating, harmful and toxic chemicals and particles such as carbon oxides, nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, lead and aromatic hydrocarbons. Engines should be run only under conditions of adequate exhaust extraction or general ventilation and not in confined spaces.
Gasoline (petrol) engine
There may not be adequate warning of odor or of irritation before toxic or harmful effects arise. These may be immediate or delayed.
Soot, discomfort and irritation usually give adequate warning of hazardous fume concentrations.
See also Dusts.
Used in noise and sound insulation.
The fibrous nature of surfaces and cut edges can cause skin irritation. This is usually a physical and not a chemical effect.
Precautions should be taken to avoid excessive skin contact through careful organization of work practices and the use of gloves.
See also Welding, Foams, Legal Aspects.
Many of the materials found on or associated with the repair of vehicles are highly flammable. Some give off toxic or harmful fumes if burnt.
Observe strict fire safety when storing and handling flammable materials or solvents, particularly near electrical equipment or welding processes.
Make sure, before using electrical or welding equipment, that there is no fire hazard present.
Have a suitable fire extinguisher available when using welding or heating equipment.
Apart from meeting any legal requirements it is desirable for someone in the workshop to be trained in First Aid procedures.
Splashes in the eye should be flushed carefully with clean water for at least ten minutes.
Soiled skin should be washed with soap and water.
In case of cold burns, from alternative fuels, place affected area in cool to cold water.
Individuals affected by inhalation of gases and fumes should be removed to fresh air immediately. If effects persist, consult a doctor.
If liquids are swallowed inadvertently, consult a doctor giving him the information on the container or label. Do not induce vomiting unless this action is indicated on the label.
Foams - Polyurethane
See also Fire.
Used in sound and noise insulation. Cured foams used in seat and trim cushioning.
Follow manufacturers instructions.
Unreacted components are irritating and may be harmful to the skin and eyes. Wear gloves and goggles.
Individuals with chronic respiratory diseases, asthma, bronchial medical problems, or histories of allergic diseases should not work in or near uncured materials.
The components, vapors or spray mists can cause direct irritation, sensitivity reactions and may be toxic or harmful.
Vapors and spray mists must not be inhaled. These materials must be applied with adequate ventilation and respiratory protection. Do not remove the respirator immediately after spraying; wait until the vapors/mists have cleared.
Burning of the uncured components and the cured foams can generate toxic and harmful fumes. Smoking, naked flames or the use of electrical equipment during foaming operations and until vapors/mists have cleared should not be allowed. Any heat cutting of cured foams or partially cured foams should be conducted with extraction ventilation. See also the vehicle Body Repair Manual.
See Air Conditioning Refrigerant.
See also, Fire, Legal Aspects, Chemicals and Solvents.
Avoid skin contact with fuel where possible. Should contact occur, wash the affected skin with soap and water.
Highly flammable - observe No Smoking policy.
Swallowing can result in mouth and throat irritation and absorption from the stomach can result in drowsiness and unconsciousness. Small amounts can be fatal to children. Aspiration of liquid into the lungs, through vomiting, is a very serious hazard.
Gasoline dries the skin and can cause irritation and dermatitis on prolonged or repeated contact. Liquid in the eye causes severe smarting.
Motor gasoline may contain appreciable quantities of benzene, which is toxic upon inhalation, and the concentration of gasoline vapors must be kept very low. High concentrations will cause eye, nose and throat irritation, nausea, headache, depression and symptoms of drunkenness. Very high concentrations will result in rapid loss of consciousness.
Make sure there is adequate ventilation when handling and using gasoline. Great care must be taken to avoid the serious consequences of inhalation in the event of vapor build up arising from spillages in confined spaces.
Special precautions apply to cleaning and maintenance operations on gasoline storage tanks.
Gasoline should not be used as a cleaning agent. It must not be siphoned by mouth. See First Aid.
Gas-oil (Diesel Fuel)
Gross or prolonged skin contact with high boiling point gas oils may also cause serious skin disorders including skin cancer.
Used also as heating fuel, solvent and cleaning agent.
Flammable - observe No Smoking policy.
Irritation of the mouth and throat may result from swallowing. The main hazard from swallowing arises if liquid aspiration into the lungs occurs.
Liquid contact dries the skin and can cause irritation or dermatitis. Splashes in the eye may be slightly irritating.
In normal circumstances the low volatility does not give rise to harmful vapors. Exposure to mists and vapors from kerosene at elevated temperature should be avoided (mists may arise in dewaxing). Avoid skin and eye contact and make sure there is adequate ventilation.
Highly flammable. Observe ``NO SMOKING" signs.
Make sure there is adequate ventilation when working on alternative fuelled vehicles. Great care must be taken to avoid the serious consequences of inhalation in the event of vapor build up in confined spaces.
Inhalation in high concentrations may cause dizziness, headache, nausea and loss of co-ordination. Very high concentrations may result in loss of consciousness.
Contact with liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) or compressed natural gas (CNG) to the skin may cause cold burns and frost bite.
Long sleeved cotton overalls, steel toe capped safety boots and rubber neoprene gloves should be worn during removal and installation of LPG/CNG fuel system components.
LPG/CNG fuel leaks could cause a fire and be a hazard to health that can lead to personal injury, illness or even death.
If a leak is detected, under no circumstances attempt to seal the leak by tightening the union/connection until the fuel in the system or component is depressurized. Once tightened the system should be checked for integrity following the specified procedures.
If the fuel tank is to be removed for service or repair the fuel must be evacuated using dedicated equipment and following the specified procedures.
See also Fire.
Gases such as oxygen, acetylene, argon and propane are normally stored in cylinders at pressures of up to 138 bar (2000 psi) and great care should be taken in handling these cylinders to avoid mechanical damage to them or to the valve gear attached. The contents of each cylinder should be clearly identified by appropriate markings.
Cylinders should be stored in well-ventilated enclosures, and protected from ice and snow, or direct sunlight. Fuel gases, for example acetylene and propane, should not be stored in close proximity to oxygen cylinders.
Care should be exercised to prevent leaks from gas cylinders and lines, and to avoid sources of ignition.
Only trained personnel should undertake work involving gas cylinders.
See Gas Cylinders.
General Workshop Tools and Equipment
It is essential that all tools and equipment are maintained in good condition and that the correct safety equipment is used where required.
Never use tools or equipment for any purpose other than that for which they were designed. Never overload equipment such as hoists, jacks, axle and chassis stands or lifting slings. Damage caused by overloading is not always immediately apparent and may result in a fatal failure the next time that the equipment is used.
Do not use damaged or defective tools or equipment, particularly high-speed equipment such as grinding wheels. A damaged grinding wheel can disintegrate without warning and cause serious injury.
Wear suitable eye protection when using grinding, chiseling or sand blasting equipment.
Wear a suitable breathing mask when using abrasive blasting equipment, working with asbestos-based materials or using spraying equipment.
Make sure there is adequate ventilation to control dusts, mists and fumes.
High Pressure Air, Lubrication and Oil Test Equipment
See also Lubricants and Greases.
Always keep high-pressure equipment in good condition, and regularly maintained, particularly at joints and unions.
Never direct a high-pressure nozzle, for example diesel injector, at the skin as the fluid may penetrate to the underlying tissue, and cause serious injury.
There are many laws and regulations relating to health and safety in the use and disposal of materials and equipment in a workshop.
For a safe working environment and to avoid environmental pollution, workshops should be familiar, in detail, with the many health and safety laws and regulations within their country, published by both national and local authorities.
Lubricants and Greases
Avoid all prolonged and repeated contact with mineral oils. All lubricants and greases may be irritating to the eyes and skin.
Certain Transmission and Power Steering fluids supplied to Ford may contain additives which have the potential to cause skin disease (dermatitis) to exposed persons. The dermatitis may be irritant or allergic in nature. Risks are higher where prolonged or repeated skin contact with a fluid may occur. These fluids are used for vehicle initial fill and service purposes. This sub-section is to:
- Inform Service personnel who may come into contact with these vehicle fluids (hazard communication).
- Summarise appropriate workplace control measures and personal protective equipment requirements.
- Draw attention to the existence of Material Safety Datasheets (MSDS's) for the fluids (available from Ford Customer Service Division). These MSDS's contain detailed information on hazards and appropriate controls.
Workplace risk assessments made under national chemical control regulations should identify operations involving the fluids as potentially hazardous and specify workplace control and worker awareness measures. In such circumstances, the relevant Material Safety Datasheet (see the details specified below) which specifies hazards and control measures in detail should be made available for guidance.
Avoid unprotected skin contact with the fluids, and in particular, avoid prolonged or repeated skin contact. Work practices should be organised so as to minimise the potential for skin contact. This may include the use of drip trays, absorbents, correct fluid handling equipment (funnels etc), and workplace housekeeping measures such as the cleaning of contaminated surfaces.
Personnel engaged in operations where skin contact could occur (such as fluid draining or filling) should wear impervious gloves made from nitrile rubber, certified to a chemical protection standard, e.g. Europe Standard EN374. This glove type is widely available from reputable suppliers of gloves for chemical protection [including the manufacturers Ansell-Admont (Solvex Range), North Safety products (North Nitrile Latex Gloves range), and Marigold Industrial (Blue Nitrile range)]. If gloves become torn or contaminated on the inside they should be replaced. Eye protection with safety glasses is appropriate. Use of an impervious apron and arm protectors may be necessary if more extensive exposure is possible. Use of skin barrier creams suitable for work with mineral oil products may offer some supplementary protection, but such barrier creams should not be used in place of protective clothing.
If accidental skin contact occurs with the fluids, wash the area thoroughly with soap or skin cleanser and water.
Accidental eye contact should be dealt with as per normal first aid practices, by flushing the eyes with an eye wash or clean cool water for 10 minutes, after which medical attention should be obtained.
Remove and launder clothing which becomes contaminated with the fluids. Do not place rags contaminated with fluid in clothing pockets.
Wash thoroughly after completing operations where skin exposure may have occurred.
It is important that personnel do not smoke, eat or drink whilst handling the fluids or affected transmissions. These measures are designed to limit the risk from accidental ingestion.
Label any decanted fluid properly/use an equivalent label to that on original product containers.
Clean up any spills promptly using an inert absorbent and wash down contaminated surfaces with detergent and water.
Dispose of any waste fluids safely as hazardous waste.
Safety Data Sheets
Safety Data Sheets, which detail specific material handling instructions and precautions are available from the respective national sales company, and via internet www.msds.ford.com.
Used Engine Oil
Prolonged and repeated contact with mineral oil will result in the removal of natural fats from the skin, leading to dryness, irritation and dermatitis. In addition, used engine oil contains potentially harmful contaminants, which may cause skin cancer. Adequate means of skin protection and washing facilities must be provided.
Do not employ used engine oils as lubricants or for any application where appreciable skin contact is likely to occur.
Burning used engine oil in small space heaters or boilers can be recommended only for units of approved design. If in doubt check with the appropriate local authority and manufacturer of approved appliances.
Dispose of used oil and used oil filters through authorized waste disposal contractors or licensed waste disposal sites, or to the waste oil reclamation trade. If in doubt, contact the relevant local authority for advice on disposal facilities.
It is illegal to pour used oil on to the ground, down sewers or drains, or into watercourses.
Some operations may produce high noise levels, which could, in time, damage hearing. In these cases, suitable ear protection must be worn.
Noise Insulation Materials
See Foams, Fibre Insulation.
See also Solvents, Chemical Materials.
Highly flammable, flammable - observe No Smoking policy
Can contain harmful or toxic pigments, driers and other components as well as solvents. Spraying should be carried out only with adequate ventilation.
Can also contain harmful and toxic unreacted resins and resin hardening agents. The manufacturers instructions should be followed. See also Resin-based Adhesives and Isocyanate Adhesives and Sealers under Adhesives and Sealers.
Spraying should preferably be carried out in exhausted ventilated booths removing vapor and spray mists from the breathing zone. Individuals working in booths should wear appropriate respiratory protection. Those doing small-scale repair work in the open workshop should wear air-fed respirators.
See High Pressure Air, Lubrication and Oil Test Equipment.
Solders are mixtures of metals such that the melting point of the mixture is below that of the constituent metals (normally lead and tin). Solder application does not normally give rise to toxic lead fumes, provided a gas/air flame is used. Oxy-acetylene flames should not be used, as they are much hotter and will cause lead fumes to be produced.
Some fumes may be produced by the application of any flame to surfaces coated with grease, and inhalation of these should be avoided.
Removal of excess solder should be undertaken with care, to make sure that fine lead dust is not produced, which can give toxic effects if inhaled. Respiratory protection may be necessary.
Solder spillage and filings should be collected and removed promptly to prevent general air contamination by lead.
High standards of personal hygiene are necessary in order to avoid ingestion of lead or inhalation of solder dust from clothing.
See also Chemical Materials, Fuels (Kerosene), Fire.
For example acetone, white spirit, toluene, xylene, trichloroethane.
Used in cleaning and dewaxing materials, paints, plastics, resins and thinners.
Some may be highly flammable or flammable.
Skin contact will degrease the skin and may result in irritation and dermatitis following repeated or prolonged contact. Some can be absorbed through the skin in toxic or harmful quantities.
Splashes in the eye may cause severe irritation and could lead to loss of vision.
Brief exposure of high concentrations of vapors or mists will cause eye and throat irritation, drowsiness, dizziness, headaches and, in the worst circumstances, unconsciousness.
Repeated or prolonged exposure to excessive but lower concentrations of vapors or mists, for which there might not be adequate warning indications, can cause more serious toxic or harmful effects.
Aspiration into the lungs, for example through vomiting, is the most serious consequence of swallowing.
Avoid splashes to the skin, eyes and clothing. Wear protective gloves, goggles and clothing if necessary.
Make sure there is good ventilation when in use, avoid breathing fumes, vapors and spray mists and keep containers tightly sealed. Do not use in confined spaces.
When spraying materials containing solvents, for example paints, adhesive, coatings, use extraction ventilation or personal respiratory protection in the absence of adequate general ventilation.
Do not apply heat or flame except under specific and detailed manufacturers instructions.
See Fibre Insulation, Foams.
CAUTION:Never improvise lifting tackle.
There is always a danger when loads are lifted or suspended. Never work under an unsupported, suspended or raised load, for example a suspended engine.
Always make sure that lifting equipment such as jacks, hoists, axle stands and slings are adequate and suitable for the job, in good condition and regularly maintained.
Transmission Brake Bands
See Corrosion Protection.
In common with many other manufacturers vehicles, some components have O-rings, seals or gaskets, which contain a material known as `Viton'.
Viton is a fluoroelastomer, that is a synthetic rubber type material, which contains Fluorine. It is commonly used for O-rings, gaskets and seals of all types. Although Viton is the most well known fluoroelastomer, there are others, including Fluorel and Tecmoflon.
When used under design conditions fluoroelastomers are perfectly safe. If, however, they are exposed to temperatures in excess of 400°C, the material will not burn, but will decompose, and one of the products formed is hydrofluoric acid.
This acid is extremely corrosive and may be absorbed directly, through contact, into the general body system.
O-rings, seals or gaskets which have been exposed to very high temperatures will appear charred or as a black sticky substance.
DO NOT; under any circumstances touch them or the attached components.
Enquiries should be made to determine whether Viton or any other fluoroelastomer has been used in the affected O-ring, seal or gasket. If they are of natural rubber or nitrile there is no hazard. If in doubt, be cautious, as the material may be Viton or any fluoroelastomer.
If Viton or any other fluoroelastomers have been used, the affected area should be decontaminated before the commencement of work.
Disposable heavy duty plastic gloves should be worn at all times, and the affected area washed down using wire wool and a limewater (calcium hydroxide) solution to neutralize the acid before disposing of the decomposed Viton residue and final cleaning of the area. After use, the plastic gloves should be discarded carefully and safely.
See also Fire, Electric Shock, Gas Cylinders.
Welding processes include Resistance Welding (Spot Welding), Arc Welding and Gas Welding.
This process may cause particles of molten metal to be emitted at a high velocity, and the eyes and skin must be protected.
This process emits a high level of ultra-violet radiation, which may cause arc-eye, and skin burns to the operator and to other persons nearby. Gas-shielded welding processes are particularly hazardous in this respect. Personal protection must be worn, and screens used to shield other people.
CONTACT LENS WEARERS ARE ADVISED TO REVERT TO ORDINARY SPECTACLES WHEN ARC WELDING as the arc spectrum is believed to emit microwaves which dry out the fluid between the lens and the eye. This may result in blindness when the lens is removed from the eye.
Metal spatter will also occur, and appropriate eye and skin protection is necessary.
The heat of the welding arc will produce fumes and gases from the metals being welded, the rods and from any applied coatings or contamination on the surfaces being worked on. These gases and fumes may be toxic and inhalation of these should be avoided. The use of extraction ventilation to remove the fumes from the working area may be necessary particularly in cases where the general ventilation is poor, or where considerable welding work is anticipated. In extreme cases or confined spaces where adequate ventilation cannot be provided, air-fed respirators may be necessary.
Gas Welding (and Cutting)
Oxy-acetylene torches may be used for welding and cutting, and special care must be taken to prevent leakage of these gases, with consequent risk of fire and explosion.
The process will produce metal spatter and eye and skin protection is necessary.
The flame is bright, and eye protection should be used, but the ultra-violet emission is much less than that from arc welding, and lighter filters may be used.
The process itself produces few toxic fumes, but such fumes and gases may be produced from coatings on the work, particularly during cutting away of damaged body parts, and inhalation of the fumes should be avoided.
In brazing, toxic fumes may be produced from the metals in the brazing rod, and a severe hazard may arise if brazing rods containing cadmium are used. In this event particular care must be taken to avoid inhalation of fumes and expert advice may be required.
SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS MUST BE TAKEN BEFORE ANY WELDING OR CUTTING TAKES PLACE ON VESSELS, WHICH HAVE CONTAINED COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALS, FOR EXAMPLE BOILING OR STEAMING OUT OF FUEL TANKS.
Warning Symbols on Vehicles
Decals showing warning symbols will be found on various vehicle components.
These decals must not be removed. The warnings are for the attention of owners/operators and persons carrying out service or repair operations on the vehicle.
The most commonly found decals are reproduced below together with an explanation of the warnings.
- Components or assemblies displaying the caution triangle and open book symbol advise consultation of the relevant section of the owner literature before touching or attempting adjustments of any kind.
- Components or assemblies displaying the warning triangle with the `electrified' arrow and open book symbol give warning of inherent high voltages. Never touch these with the engine running or the ignition switched on. See Electric Shock in this subsection.
- Vehicles and replacement components which contain asbestos are identified by this symbol. See Asbestos in this subsection.
- Components or assemblies displaying this symbol give warning that the component contains a corrosive substance. See Acids and Alkalis in this subsection.
- Displaying the caution circle with a deleted lighted match symbol, caution against the use of naked lights or flames within the immediate vicinity due to the presence of highly flammable or explosive liquids or vapors. See Fire in this subsection.
- Displaying this symbol (normally in conjunction with 5 above) warn of the presence of potentially explosive matter within the immediate vicinity.
- Displaying this symbol warn that children should not be allowed in the immediate vicinity unsupervised.