Knock occurs in the combustion chamber when the fuel and air mixture self ignites. This can occur either before or after the spark plug has produced an
ignition spark. In both cases the gas in two or more places ignites in the combustion chamber.
This results in an extremely fast combustion process with flames from several directions. When these flames collide, the pressure in the cylinder
increases rapidly and there is a mechanical knocking sound.
If any cylinder knocks, then certain types of vibrations in the engine block. These vibrations are transmitted to the knock sensors (7/23-24), which are
bolted in the engine block.
One knock sensor detects knock on cylinders 1, 2, 3. The other knock sensor detects knock on cylinders 4, 5, and 6.
The mechanical stress generated in the knock sensors' piezo-electric materials result in generation of a voltage. The Engine control module (ECM) (4/46)
can then, using the camshaft sensors (7/172-173) and the impulse sensor (7/25), decide which cylinder is knocking.
The knock sensors (KS) also interpret a proportion of normal engine sound. The control module is able to recognize the vibrations which correspond to
knocking by filtering, amplifying and using software to evaluate the signal.
If the knock sensors (KS) detect knocking in the engine above a certain threshold value, the ignition timing is first retarded and then the fuel/air mixture
is enriched to eliminate knocking.
The following components are used for ignition control: